Category Archives: DIDACHE Eucharist

Concordance of ‘Ends of the Earth’ (DID. 9.4)

9.4 As this fragment lay scattered upon the mountains and has been gathered to become
one, so gather your Church from the ends of the earth into your kingdom. For
the glory and power are yours, through Jesus Christ, forever.


(Deu 33:17)  His glory is as the first-born of his ox, and the horns of the wild ox are his horns; with them he shall butt the peoples together to the ends of the earth. And they are the myriads of Ephraim, and they are the thousands of Manasseh.

(1Sa 2:10)  They who strive with Jehovah will be smashed; He thunders in the heavens against him. Jehovah judges the ends of the earth and gives strength to His king; and He exalts the horn of His anointed.

(Job 28:24)  For He looks to the ends of the earth, and sees under all the heavens;

(Psa 22:27)  All the ends of the earth shall remember and turn back to Jehovah; and all the families of the nations shall worship before You.

(Psa 48:10)  According to Your name, O God, so is Your praise to the ends of the earth; Your right hand is full of righteousness.

(Psa 59:13)  Consume them in Your anger; consume, so that they may not be; and they shall know that God is ruling in Jacob, to the ends of the earth. Selah.

(Psa 65:5)  You will answer us in righteousness by awesome things, O God of our salvation; the Confidence of all the ends of the earth and the sea, of those afar off.

(Psa 67:7)  God shall bless us; and all the ends of the earth shall fear Him.

(Psa 72:8)  He shall also rule from sea to sea, and from the River to the ends of the earth.

(Psa 98:3)  He has remembered His mercy and His faithfulness to the house of Israel; all the ends of the earth have seen the salvation of our God.

(Pro 17:24)  With the face of the wise is wisdom, but a fool’s eyes are in the ends of the earth.

(Pro 30:4)  Who has gone up to Heaven, and come down? Who has gathered the wind in His fists? Who has bound the waters in His garments? Who has made all the ends of the earth to rise? What is His name, and what is His Son’s name? Surely you know.

(Isa 5:26)  And He will lift up a banner to distant nations, and will hiss to them from the ends of the earth; and, behold, it shall come with swift speed!

(Isa 40:28)  Have you not known? Have you not heard? Jehovah, the everlasting God, the Creator of the ends of the earth; He is not faint, nor does He grow weary; there is no searching to His understanding.

(Isa 41:5)  The coasts have seen and fear; the ends of the earth tremble; they have drawn near; yea, they come.

(Isa 41:9)  whom I have made strong from the ends of the earth, and called you from its sides; and I said to you, You are My servant. I elected you, and have not rejected you.

(Isa 43:6)  I will say to the north, Give up! And to the south, Do not hold back! Bring My sons from afar, and bring My daughters from the ends of the earth;

(Isa 45:22)  Turn to Me and be saved, all the ends of the earth; for I am God, and there is no other.

(Isa 52:10)  Jehovah has bared His holy arm in the eyes of all the nations; and all the ends of the earth shall see the salvation of our God.

(Jer 10:13)  When He utters His voice, there is a noise of waters in the heavens. He causes the vapors to go up from the ends of the earth; He makes lightnings for the rain and brings forth the wind out of His storehouses.

(Jer 16:19)  O Jehovah, my strength and my fortress, and my refuge in the day of affliction, the nations shall come to You from the ends of the earth and say, Our fathers have inherited only lies, vanity, and there is no profit in them.

(Jer 25:31)  A roaring will go to the ends of the earth, for Jehovah has a controversy with the nations. He will enter into judgment with all flesh; He will give the wicked to the sword, says Jehovah.

(Mic 5:4)  And He shall stand and feed in the strength of Jehovah, in the majesty of the name of Jehovah His God. And they shall sit, for now He is great to the ends of the earth.

(Zec 9:10)  And I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim and the horse from Jerusalem. And the battle bow shall be cut off, and He shall speak peace to the nations. And His dominion shall be from sea to sea, and from the River to the ends of the earth.

(Mat 12:42)  The queen of the south will be raised in the Judgment with this generation and will condemn it. For she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon, and, behold, a Greater-than-Solomon is here.

(Luk 11:31)  The queen of the south will be raised in the Judgment with the men of this generation and will condemn them because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon. And, behold, a Greater-than-Solomon is here.

(Rom 10:18)  But I say, Did they not hear? Yes, rather, “into all the earth their voice went out, and to the ends of the world their words.” LXX-Psa. 18:5; MT-Psa. 19:4


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Concordance of ‘Four Winds’ (DID. 10.5)

DID. 10.5 Remember Lord your Church, to preserve it from all evil and to make it perfect in your love. And,sanctified, gather it from the four winds into your kingdom which you have prepared for it. Because yours is the power and the glory for ever.

(1Ch 9:24)  The gatekeepers were to the four winds: east, west, north, and south.

(Jer 49:36)  And I will bring the four winds from the four ends of the heavens on Elam, and will scatter them toward all those winds. And there shall be no nation where the outcasts of Elam shall not come.

(Eze 37:9)  Then He said to me, Prophesy to the Spirit. Prophesy, son of man, and say to the Spirit, So says the Lord Jehovah: Come from the four winds, O Spirit, and breathe on these slain ones, that they may live.

(Dan 7:2)  Daniel spoke and said, In my vision by night I was looking. And, behold, the four winds of the heavens were stirring up the Great Sea.

(Dan 8:8)  Then the he-goat became very great. And when he was mighty, the great horn was shattered. And in its place came up four outstanding ones toward the four winds of the heavens.

(Dan 11:4)  And when he stands up his kingdom shall be shattered and shall be divided to the four winds of the heavens, and not to his posterity, nor according to his authority with which he ruled. For his kingdom shall be pulled up and given to others besides these.

(Zec 2:6)  Ho! Ho! Flee then from the land of the north, says Jehovah. For I have scattered you as the four winds of the heavens, declares Jehovah.


(Mat 24:31)  And He will send His angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they will gather His elect from the four winds, from the ends of the heavens to their ends.

(Mar 13:27)  And then He will send His angels and will gather His elect from the four winds, from the end of earth to the end of heaven.

(Rev 7:1)  And after these things I saw four angels standing on the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, that wind should not blow on the earth, nor on the sea, nor on every tree.


C O M M E N T:

As these instances illustrate, the ‘four winds’ idiom carries a cosmological and obviously astronomical significance perhaps representing four compass directions, and therefore, completeness. Winds sometimes scatter (Zec, Dan 11) or stir, rather than gather, but God also summons together the four to breathe life into the dead (Eze).

But the authoritative ‘textbook’ on the winds actually comes in 1Enoch chapter 75:

1And at the extremities of the earth I beheld twelve gates open for all the winds, from which they proceed and blow over the earth.

2Three of them are open in the front of heaven, three in the west, three on the right side of heaven, and three on the left. The first three are those which are towards the east, three are towards the north, three behind those which are upon the left, towards the south, and three on the west.

3From four of them proceed winds of blessing, and of health; and from eight proceed winds of punishment; when they are sent to destroy the earth, and the heaven above it, all its inhabitants, and all which are in the waters, or on dry land.

4The first of these winds proceeds from the gate termed the eastern, through the first gate on the east, which inclines southwards. From this goes forth destruction, drought, heat, and perdition.

5From the second gate, the middle one, proceeds equity. There issue from it rain, fruitfulness, health, and dew; and from the third gate northwards, proceed cold and drought.

6After these proceed the south winds through three principal gates; through their first gate, which inclines eastwards, proceeds a hot wind.

7But from the middle gate proceed grateful odour, dew, rain, health, and life.

8From the third gate, which is westwards, proceed dew, rain, blight, and destruction.

9After these are the winds to the north, which is called the sea. They proceed from three gates. The first (80) gate is that which is on the east, inclining southwards; from this proceed dew, rain, blight, and destruction. From the middle direct gate proceed rain, dew, life, and health. And from the third gate, which is westwards, inclining towards the south, proceed mist, frost, snow, rain, dew, and blight.

(80) First. Or, “seventh” (Knibb, p. 178).

10After these in the fourth quarter are the winds to the west. From the first gate, inclining northwards, proceed dew, rain, frost, cold, snow, and chill; from the middle gate proceed rain, health, and blessing;

11And from the last gate, which is southwards, proceed drought, destruction, scorching, and perdition.

12The account of the twelve gates of the four quarters of heaven is ended.

13All their laws, all their infliction of punishment, and the health produced by them, have I explained to you, my son Methuselah. (81)

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Filed under Chapter 10, DIDACHE Eucharist

The ‘Holy Vine (Branch) of David’ in Old Testament (DID. 9.2); and ‘Holy Name’ (DID. 10.2)

C O M M E N T:

As the examples below show, vine and Branch allusions in the Old Testament sometimes refer to the Messianic Monarchy and its restoration. The DIDACHE harkens to King David and to Melchizedek, king of (Jerus?) Salem as the ‘branch’ or vine, and Jesus is the restoration.

The DIDACHE and its Eucharist seem to stem more authentically from these kingly antecedents, in the mind of the Twelve and of the Lord. 

Partaking the Eucharist of bread and wine signified membership in the covenant community, in a rite recalling an older model. 

However, in what was arguably a corruptive manner apparently derived from the apostle Paul, this authentic and original monarchic/ messianic implication of the Eucharist was supplanted.  In its stead, the post-Apostolic Church sought to re-institute priestcraft, and thereby to eliminate or obscure the implication of Christ Himself as the living and ruling King.  The establishment of a papacy actually competes with, or is redundant of, the spiritual Lordship of Christ.

IN this sense, the eventual Eucharist as we know it expresses the very opposite meaning Christ intended.  The post-Constantinian Eucharist form became an inversion of the original, bringing about an institutionalized  return to priestcraft, by a theological ‘hoc est corpus’ formula in which the Eucharistic elements were made to signify a bloody sacrifice.  Again, the authentic original Eucharist was a re-enactment of the feast that old pre-Exilic Israelite kings celebrated (David, Melchizedek).  Another, similar implication is the eschatological banquet.  I believe that the respective implications of the two rites–the celebratory feasts of the monarchy on the one hand, vs. the recurring sacrifice of atonement, are rather antithetical.

In my understanding, the death of Christ signifies not an event to be commemorated, but just the opposite: the end of the age-old terrifying concept of a recurring [human or vicarious animal] sacrifice.

Thus too, in a rather hostile way, Christ’s gospel properly marks the end of a need for priests offering the the sacrifice host.  Rather, in place of them, Christ begins a New Covenant without such offices.  Instead we have the spiritual monarchy of the Risen Christ, supplanting priests.   The spirit of Christ enters prophets in the Church and makes them the new high priests (DID. 13.3).

The same idea  is conveyed in Revelation 1:4-6:

John, to the seven churches which are in Asia:

Grace to you and peace from Him who is and who was and who is coming; and from the seven spirits which are before His throne; (5)  even from Jesus Christ the faithful Witness, the First-born from the dead and the Ruler of the kings of the earth. To Him who loved us and washed us from our sins in His own blood, (6)  and made us kings and priests to God and His Father: to Him be glory and dominion forever and ever. Amen.

(Note this does not say the Lord washed the sins of only ‘some’ of us who are initiated, nor that only ‘some’ of us are made kings and priests.  The stronger implication is that the offices of priest and king are collectively shared in the fellowship of those who are washed free of sin by His blood.  Also, though, note that in Rev 5.10 the ‘kings and priests’ vocabulary comes from the mouths of the 24 elders in heaven and the four living creatures; this, along with the idea of the Seven Angels to the Seven Churches, may signify that the Lordship, kingship, and priesthood, while shared collectively on earth, are ‘administered’ and rule-over from heaven, by a celestial council.)


Concordance of “Branch” (and the related idea of springing therefrom):

Strong’s H6780     צמח

Total KJV Occurrences: 9; branch: 5; Isa_4:2, Jer_23:5 Jer_33:15, Zec_3:8, Zec_6:12

Isa 4:1-6 [DID. 9.2]

(1)  And in that day seven women shall take hold of one man, saying, we will eat our own bread and wear our own clothing; only let us be called by your name, to take away our shame. [DID. 10.2]
(2)  In that day shall the Branch of Jehovah be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the earth excellent and comely for those who have escaped from Israel.
(3)  And it shall be, he who is left in Zion, and he who remains in Jerusalem, shall be called holy, even everyone who is written among the living in Jerusalem;
(4)  when the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from its midst by the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of burning.
(5)  And Jehovah will create over all the site of Mount Zion, and on her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day, and the shining of a flaming fire by night; for on all the glory shall be a defense.
(6)  And there shall be a booth for a shade by day from the heat, and for a refuge, and for a hiding place from storm and rain.


Jer 23:1-40 (v 6.=DID. 10.2)

(1)  Woe to the shepherds who destroy and scatter the sheep of My pasture, says Jehovah.
(2)  Therefore so says Jehovah, the God of Israel, against the shepherds who feed My people, You have scattered My flock, and have driven them away, and have not visited them. Behold, I will bring on you the evil of your doings, says Jehovah.
(3)  And I will gather the remnant of My flock out of all countries where I have driven them, and will bring them again to their fold. And they shall be fruitful and multiply.
(4)  And I will set up shepherds over them who will feed them. And they shall fear no more, nor be afraid; nor shall they lack anything, says Jehovah.
(5)  Behold, the days come, says Jehovah, that I will raise to David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and act wisely, and shall do judgment and justice in the earth.
(6)  In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely. And this is His name by which He shall be called, JEHOVAH, OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS.
(7)  Therefore, behold, the days come, says Jehovah, that they shall no more say, Jehovah lives, who brought the sons of Israel up out of the land of Egypt;
(8)  but, Jehovah lives, who brought up and led the seed of the house of Israel out of the north country, and from all countries where I have driven them. And they shall dwell in their own land.
(9)  My heart within me is broken because of the prophets; all my bones shake. I am like a drunken man, and like a man whom wine has overcome, because of Jehovah, and because of the Words of His holiness.
(10)  For the land is full of adulterers. Yes, because of cursing the land mourns; the pleasant places of the wilderness are dried up, and their course is evil, and their power is not right.
(11)  For both prophet and priest are ungodly; yes, in My house I have found their evil, says Jehovah.
(12)  So their way shall be to them as slippery ways in the darkness; they shall be driven on, and fall in them; for I will bring evil on them, even the year of their judgment, says Jehovah.
(13)  And I have seen frivolity in the prophets of Samaria; they prophesied by Baal and caused My people Israel to go astray.
(14)  I have also seen in the prophets of Jerusalem a horrible thing; they commit adultery and walk in falsehood. They also strengthen to the hands of evildoers, so that none returns from his evil; they are all of them like Sodom to Me, and its inhabitants like Gomorrah.
(15)  So Jehovah of Hosts says this concerning the prophets: Behold, I will feed them wormwood, and make them drink poisonous water; for from the prophets of Jerusalem ungodliness has gone forth into all the land.
(16)  So says Jehovah of Hosts, Do not listen to the words of the prophets who prophesy to you. They make you vain; they speak a vision from their own heart, not out of the mouth of Jehovah.
(17)  They still say to those who despise Me, Jehovah has said, You shall have peace! And they say to everyone who walks after the stubbornness of his own heart, No evil shall come on you!
(18)  For who has stood in the counsel of Jehovah, and hears His Word? Who has listened to His Word and heard it?
(19)  Behold, the tempest of Jehovah has gone forth in fury, a whirling tempest. It shall whirl on the head of the wicked.
(20)  The anger of Jehovah shall not return, until He has done and until He has set up the purposes of His heart; in later days you shall understand it perfectly.
(21)  I have not sent these prophets, yet they ran; I have not spoken to them, yet they prophesied.
(22)  But if they had stood in My wisdom and had caused My people to hear My Words, then they would have turned them from their evil way and from the evil of their doings.
(23)  Am I a God near, says Jehovah, and not a God afar off?
(24)  Can anyone hide himself in secret places so that I shall not see him? says Jehovah. Do I not fill the heavens and earth? says Jehovah.
(25)  I have heard what the prophets said, who prophesy lies in My name, saying, I have dreamed, I have dreamed.
(26)  How long shall this be in the heart of the prophets who prophesy lies? But they are prophets of the deceit of their own heart,
(27)  who plot to cause My people to forget My name by their dreams which they tell, each one to his neighbor, as their fathers have forgotten My name for Baal.
(28)  The prophet who has a dream, let him tell a dream. And he who has My Word, let him speak My Word faithfully. What is the chaff to the wheat? says Jehovah.
(29)  Is not My Word like a fire? says Jehovah; and like a hammer that breaks the rock in pieces?
(30)  So Jehovah says, Behold, I am against the prophets who steal My Words each one from his neighbor.
(31)  Jehovah says, Behold, I am against the prophets who use their tongues and say, He says.
(32)  Jehovah says, Behold, I am against those who prophesy false dreams and tell them, and cause My people to go astray by their lies and by their lightness. Yet I did not send them nor command them; therefore they shall not profit this people at all, says Jehovah.
(33)  And when this people, or the prophet, or a priest, shall ask you, saying, What is the burden of Jehovah? You shall then say to them, What burden? I will even forsake you, says Jehovah.
(34)  And as for the prophet, and the priest, and the people, who shall say, The burden of Jehovah, I will even punish that man and his house.
(35)  So you shall say each one to his neighbor, and each one to his brother, What has Jehovah answered? And what has Jehovah spoken?
(36)  And you shall mention the burden of Jehovah no more. For every man’s word shall be his burden; for you have perverted the Words of the living God, of Jehovah of Hosts our God.
(37)  So you shall say to the prophet, What has Jehovah answered you? And what has Jehovah spoken?
(38)  But since you say, The burden of Jehovah; therefore so says Jehovah, Because you say this word; the burden of Jehovah; and I have sent to you saying, You shall not say, The burden of Jehovah;
(39)  therefore, behold, I, even I, will completely forget you, and I will forsake you and the city that I gave you and your fathers, and cast you out of My presence.
(40)  And I will bring an everlasting reproach on you, and a never-ending shame, which shall not be forgotten.


Jer 33:1-26 [v 15 cf. DID. 10.2]
(1)  And the Word of Jehovah came to Jeremiah the second time, while he was still shut up in the court of the guard, saying,
(2)  So says Jehovah the Maker of it, Jehovah who formed it in order to establish it; Jehovah is His name:
(3)  Call to Me, and I will answer you, and show you great and inscrutable things which you do not know.
(4)  For so says Jehovah, the God of Israel, concerning the houses of this city, and concerning the houses of the kings of Judah, which are broken down to defend against the siege-mounds and against the sword:
(5)  They come to fight with the Chaldeans, and to fill them with the dead bodies of men whom I have slain in My anger and in My fury, and for all whose evil I have hidden My face from this city.
(6)  Behold, I will bring it health and healing, and I will heal them and will show them the riches of peace and truth.
(7)  And I will cause the captivity of Judah and the captivity of Israel to return, and will build them, as at the first.
(8)  And I will cleanse them from all their iniquity by which they have sinned against Me; and I will pardon all their iniquities by which they have sinned, and by which they have transgressed against Me.
(9)  And it shall be to Me a name of joy, a praise and an honor before all the nations of the earth, which shall hear all the good that I do to them. And they shall fear and tremble for all the goodness and for all the riches that I bring to it.
(10)  So says Jehovah: Again there shall be heard in this place, which you say is a waste without man and without beast, even in the cities of Judah, and in the streets of Jerusalem that are desolate without man, and without inhabitant, and without beast;
(11)  the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the voice of those who shall say, Praise Jehovah of Hosts, for Jehovah is good, for His mercy endures forever; and the voice of those who shall bring the sacrifice of praise into the house of Jehovah. For I will cause the captivity of the land to return, as at the first, says Jehovah.
(12)  So says Jehovah of Hosts: Again in this place which is a desert without man and without beast, and in all its cities, there shall be a home of shepherds causing their flocks to lie down.
(13)  In the cities of the mountains, in the cities of the valley, and in the cities of the south, and in the land of Benjamin, and in the places around Jerusalem, and in the cities of Judah, shall the flocks pass again under the hands of him who tallies, says Jehovah.
(14)  Behold, the days come, says Jehovah, that I will establish the good thing which I have spoken to the house of Israel and to the house of Judah.
(15)  In those days, and at that time, I will cause the Branch of righteousness to grow up to David. And He shall do judgment and righteousness in the land.
(16)  In those days Judah shall be saved, and Jerusalem shall dwell safely. And this is the name with which she shall be called, JEHOVAH OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS [DID. 10.2].
(17)  For so says Jehovah, David shall never lack a man to sit on the throne of the house of Israel,
(18)  nor shall the priests the Levites lack a man before Me to offer burnt offerings, and to kindle grain offerings, and to do sacrifice forever.
(19)  And the Word of Jehovah came to Jeremiah, saying,
(20)  So says Jehovah: If you can break My covenant of the day and My covenant of the night, and that there should not be day and night in their season,
(21)  then also may My covenant with David My servant be broken, that he should not have a son to reign on his throne, and My covenant with the Levites the priests, My ministers.
(22)  As the host of the heavens cannot be numbered, nor the sand of the sea measured, so I will multiply the seed of David My servant and the Levites who minister to Me.
(23)  And the Word of Jehovah came to Jeremiah, saying,
(24)  Do you not consider what this people have spoken, saying, The two families which Jehovah has chosen, He has even cast them off? So they have despised My people, that they should be no more a nation before them.
(25)  So says Jehovah: If My covenant is not with day and night, and if I have not given the ordinances of the heavens and the earth,
(26)  then I will cast away the seed of Jacob, and David My servant, so that I will not take any of his seed to be rulers over the seed of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. For I will bring back their captivity, and have mercy on them.

Zec 3:1-10 [DID 9.2]
(1)  And He showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the Angel of Jehovah, and Satan standing at his right hand to accuse him.
(2)  And Jehovah said to Satan, May Jehovah rebuke you, Satan! May even Jehovah who has chosen Jerusalem rebuke you! Is this not a brand plucked out of the fire?
(3)  Now Joshua was clothed with filthy clothes, and stood before the Angel.
(4)  And He answered and spoke to those who stood before him, saying, Take away the filthy clothes from him. And to him He said, Behold, I have caused your iniquity to pass from you, and I will clothe you with ceremonial robes.
(5)  And I said, Let them set a clean turban on his head. And they set a clean turban on his head and clothed him with garments. And the Angel of Jehovah stood by.
(6)  And the Angel of Jehovah charged Joshua, saying,
(7)  So says Jehovah of Hosts: If you will walk in My ways, and if you will keep My charge, then you shall also judge My house, and shall also keep My courts, and I will give you places to walk among these who stand by.
(8)  Hear now, O Joshua the high priest, you and your fellows who sit before you; for they are men of symbol.
(9)  For behold! I will bring forth My Servant the Branch. For behold the stone that I have set before Joshua: On one stone are seven eyes [Rev. 5.6]. Behold, I will engrave its engraving, says Jehovah of Hosts, and I will remove the iniquity of that land in one day.
(10)  In that day, says Jehovah of Hosts, you shall call, each man to his neighbor, to sit under the vine and under the fig tree.


Zec 6:9-15
(9)  And the Word of Jehovah came to me saying,
(10)  Take from Heldai, Tobijah, and Jedaiah, from the exiles who have come from Babylon; and in that day you go and enter the house of Josiah the son of Zephaniah.
(11)  And take silver and gold, and make crowns, and set them on the head of Joshua the son of Jehozadak, the high priest.
(12)  And speak to him, saying, So speaks Jehovah of Hosts, saying, Behold the Man whose name is The BRANCH! And He shall spring up out of His place, and He shall build the temple of Jehovah.
(13)  Even He shall build the temple of Jehovah; and He shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule on His throne. And He shall be a priest on His throne; and the counsel of peace shall be between them both.
(14)  And the crowns shall be for a memorial in the temple of Jehovah to Helem and to Tobijah and to Jedaiah, and to Hen the son of Zephaniah.
(15)  And the distant ones shall come and build in the temple of Jehovah, and you shall know that Jehovah of Hosts has sent me to you. And this shall be, if you will carefully obey the voice of Jehovah your God.

(Other renderings of Hebrew tsemach: “grew,”  Gen 19:25, Eze 17:10; “spring,” Eze_17:9 “springing,” Psa_65:9-10)


Psa 80:14-19
(14)  Return, we beg You, O God of Hosts; look down from Heaven, and behold, and visit this vine,
(15)  and the vineyard which Your right hand has planted
, and the Son that You make strong for Yourself.
(16)  It is burned with fire, and cut down; they perish at the rebuke of Your holy face.
(17)  Let Your hand be on the Man of Your right hand, on the Son of man whom You have made strong for Yourself.
(18)  So we will not go back from You; make us live, and we will call on Your name.
(19)  Turn us again, O Jehovah, the God of Hosts; cause Your face to shine, and we shall be saved.

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The ‘Fragment Scattered upon the Mountains, Gathered into One.’ (DID. 9.4)

9.3 And concerning the fragment: We give thanks to you, our Father, For the life and knowledge, which you have revealed to us through Jesus your servant. To you be glory for ever. 9.4 As this fragment lay scattered upon the mountains and has been gathered to become one, so gather your Church from the ends of the earth into your kingdom. For the glory and power are yours, through Jesus Christ, forever.

C O M M E N T :

This prayer voices the vision of authentic Christianity as the apostles learned and communicated it.  Everything   the Teaching (DIDACHE); the gathering into an assembly; the baptismal catechism    culminates in the Eucharistic “fragment.” 

So much could be written about this (if only time would permit!)

The sense of the ‘fragment’ which ‘lay scattered upon the mountains’ is of course open to interpretation.  In my own spiritual instruction, the angel which God has given to me speaks to me that the prayer basically refers to the miraculous Feeding of the Multitude (Mat. 14, Mar. 6,8, Luk. 9, Jn. 6). 

But this also evokes the mythic feeding of the children of Israel who wandered in the wilderness and were fed by manna which fell from heaven and was scattered on the ground. (Exod. 16).

See also ‘Radically incompatible Institution Narratives’

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Filed under Chapter 09, Commentary by Verse, DIDACHE Eucharist

Radically incompatible Institution Narratives (DID. 9.2-4)

9.2 “First, concerning the cup: We give thanks to you, our Father, For the holy vine of David your servant which you have revealed to us through Jesus your  servant. To you be glory for ever.

9.3 And concerning the fragment: We give thanks to you, our Father, For the life and knowledge, which you have revealed to us through Jesus your servant. To you be glory for ever. 9.4 As this fragment lay scattered upon the mountains and has been gathered to become one, so gather your Church from the ends of the earth into your kingdom. For the glory and power are yours, through Jesus Christ, forever.”


C O M M E N T :


In the four Gospels we have nothing comparable to this Eucharistic prayer in the DIDACHE.  The disparity strikes me as remarkable! It spurs prayerful reflection. 

The sense which comes to mind just now is that perhaps the DIDACHE was an early authentic founding concept of the Church and Eucharist  but, over time it was for some reason reduced in valuation (one can only speculate why); then it was supplanted in the liturgy, with the so-famous ‘hoc est corpus…’  The reasons for this supplanting, and possible implications, are questions deserving of attention and prayer.  Scholars have devoted much study to this question.  (If the Lord will, I will post some highlights of my readings on this, which are rather candid.) 

As a quick statement for now, of what I sense on this from the Spirit’s leading: 

The ‘holy vine of David your servant’ can perhaps be read in several ways. (Here is a pertinent Concordance: ‘David your Servant,’ ‘Servant David’.)

The most evocative way to me is this. The ‘holy vine’ poetically means ‘fruition,’ i.e. realization and fulfillment of what was promised and latent. The apostolic authors of the prayer regard the vine of David as a prophetic portent which has now been revealed through Jesus. This vine is the living spiritual Kingship of the God of Israel over the whole Church united in Christ. Drinking of it has become the life-giving sustenance of the community (Church) of those who are baptized into the fellowship.  Drinking wine gives joy, pleasure and happiness and, if the hearts are in good conscience, perfect unity. 

Of course the vine imagery  which begins with this DIDACHE prayer  ultimately evokes a “proven and perfected” restatement, and still deeper understanding in the sublime revelation in the Gospel of John(15:1-8):

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I am the True Vine, and My Father is the Vinedresser.  (2)  Every branch in Me that does not bear fruit, He takes away. And every one that bears fruit, He prunes it so that it may bring forth more fruit.  (3)  Now you are clean through the Word which I have spoken to you.  (4)  Abide in Me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself unless it remains in the vine, so neither can you unless you abide in Me.  (5)  I am the Vine, you are the branches. He who abides in Me, and I in him, the same brings forth much fruit; for without Me you can do nothing.  (6)  If anyone does not abide in Me, he is cast out as a branch and is withered. And they gather and cast them into the fire, and they are burned.  (7)  If you abide in Me, and My Words abide in you, you shall ask what you will, and it shall be done to you.  (8)  In this My Father is glorified, that you bear much fruit, so you shall be My disciples.



On a personal note, I have had two wonderful dream visions relating to the Eucharist; these are reported in my book Divine Dreams (1994 I think) and at my website Visions and NDE experiences of God and Christ  (Incidentally, this old website, though still quite accessible also via,  is being slowly converted into a more current-Php style CMS and also a third format, a blog, ; the latter is but is so far empty until the Lord provides me the time for it.)

Navigate to the ‘Heavenly ambrosia’ dream vision and also to the ‘Serving at the Banquet’ dream vision.


Addendum: Spectacular unity of the DIDACHE Eucharist, with the Feeding of the Multitude (DID. 9.3)

As a corollary to the holy vine of David, per the DIDACHE uniquely, what we have most emphatically in common between the DIDACHE and the Four Gospels, is the Feeding of the Multitude, to which of course this prayer alludes. 

Of note:

The Feeding is recounted in all four canonical Gospels.  And in all four it is truly a pivotal event. And this Feeding is the only miracle of the Lord which is recounted in all four Gospels; and this Feeding appears to be the obvious allusion that the DIDACHE prayer is making.

A key link-word is “fragments” (Greek: KLASMA). The only New Testament texts using this word are these four, in which the KLASMA refers to the “leftover” fragments of the Feeding. Jesus then refers to these fragments in an exposition (Mat 16.9-10) to signify deeper meaning.


The Feeding, I believe, Represents the more Authentic Original Gospel than does the Institution Narrative…

The sense of the Eucharist which the Spirit instructs to me, is that the miraculous Feeding is God’s ultimate purpose both in the material sense of a world in which all the poor are fed, and in the miraculous sense in which each Initiate in the Way, leans of God’s miraculous providence as a living reality.  It is this Feeding that is the true Salvation of the world.  Again, it occurs on several levels, including literal food and beverage, as well as spiritual food and drink from Christ’s body, and intellectual awakening   food for the soul and heart and mind.


The ‘hoc es corpus’ as an inauthentic recrudescence of priestcraft ?

Thought it grieves and troubles me to speculate, my spirit notes a perhaps contrasting Eucharistic innovation which supplanted the authentic original found here in the DIDACHE.  (There is considerable scholarship on this question which, time and the Lord permitting it, will be posted here.)  In contradistinction to the Feeding of the Poor and the Multitude of seekers, one now receives a different Eucharist    one which emphasizes the sacrificial death as atonement, not miraculous provision.   This suggests to an erroneous departure and substitution, although it is far from me to judge history or render an authoritative answer on the matter.  The disturbing element is the theology in which the priests become a necessity for a cleansing rite.  If this is what occurred, then it arguably supplants Christ’s once-and-for-all cleansing, which was intended as the initiation of a new order of a spiritual commonwealth.  But, with the corrupting effect of time, ‘the sheep turned to wolves,’ and love turned to hate, and the communion feast became a tool of division, conflict, excommunication, extortion and whatnot. 

Thus you find the theme expounded here, questioning the post-Nicene post-Constantine departure into an institutionalized, bureaucratized imperial church.


Contrast of the DIDACHE Eucharist with the canonical Institution Narrative

Now we have the institution narratives of Mat, Mark, Luke and 1Cor. The phrasing used here refers to a bread and wine symbolizing Christ’s body and blood in Atoning sacrifice.  This, I believe, is not self-evidently the same sense that we were introduced to with the ‘vine of David’ imagery. As I noted, this vine refers to a unity of spirits submitting to the Kingship of God (which Kingship engages believer through the catechistic Torah of the DIDACHE).

However, the element in common between both disparate texts, is the idea of a covenant (of the canonical institution narratives) that is established and which creates the community (that is living together as the Multitude of KLASMA, in the DIDACHE).

Here in these parallel texts we see how completely harmonized the covenant institution language has become in the New Testament.

MATTHEW: And as they were eating, Jesus took bread and blessed it, and broke it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat, this is My body. And He took the cup and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink all of it. For this is My blood of the new covenant, which is shed for many for the remission of sins. But I say to you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on, until that day when I drink it new with you in My Father’s kingdom. (Mat 26:26-29)

MARK: And as they ate, Jesus took a loaf and blessed and broke it, and He gave to them and said, Take, eat; this is My body. And taking the cup, giving thanks, He gave to them. And they all drank out of it. And He said to them, This is My blood of the New Covenant, which is poured out for many. Truly I say to you, I will no more drink of the fruit of the vine until that day that I drink it new in the kingdom of God. (Mar 14:22-25)

LUKE: And when the hour came, He and the twelve apostles with Him reclined. And He said to them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer. For I say to you, I will not any more eat of it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God. And He took the cup and gave thanks and said, Take this and divide it among yourselves. For I say to you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God shall come. And He took bread and gave thanks, and He broke it and gave it to them, saying, This is My body which is given for you, this do in remembrance of Me. In the same way He took the cup, after having dined, saying, This cup is the new covenant in My blood, which is being poured out for you. (Luk 22:14-20)

For I received from the Lord what I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus in the night in which he was betrayed took bread; And giving thanks, He broke it and said, “Take, eat; this is My body, which is broken for you; this do in remembrance of Me.” In the same way He took the cup also, after supping, saying, “This cup is the New Covenant in My blood; as often as you drink it, do this in remembrance of Me.” For “as often as you eat this bread and drink this cup, you show” the Lord’s death until He shall come. (1Co 11:23-26)


Addendum: Also compare other ‘passion Cup’ elements:

And they shall deliver Him to the nations to mock and to scourge and to crucify. And the third day He shall rise again. Then the mother of Zebedee’s children came to Him with her sons, worshiping and desiring a certain thing from Him. And He said to her, What do you desire? She said to Him, Grant that these my two sons may sit in Your kingdom, the one on Your right hand and the other on the left. But Jesus answered and said, You do not know what you ask. Are you able to drink of the cup that I shall drink of, and to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? They said to Him, We are able. And He said to them, You shall indeed drink of My cup and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with; but to sit on My right hand and on My left is not Mine to give, but to those for whom it has been prepared by My Father.   (Mat 20:19-23) 

And He went a little further and fell on His face, and prayed, saying, O My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from Me. Yet not as I will, but as You will. (Mat 26:39)He went away again the second time and prayed, saying, My Father, if this cup may not pass away from Me unless I drink it, Your will be done. And He came and found them asleep again, for their eyes were heavy. And He left them and went away again, and prayed the third time, saying the same word. (Mat 26:42-44)

And He said, Abba, Father, all things are possible to You. Take away this cup from Me. Yet not what I will, but what You will.
(Mar 14:36)

And He was withdrawn from them about a stone’s throw. And He kneeled down and prayed, saying, Father, if You are willing, remove this cup from Me. Yet not My will, but Yours be done.
(Luk 22:41-42)

Then Jesus said to Peter, Put up your sword into the sheath. The cup which My Father has given Me, shall I not drink it?
(Joh 18:11)

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Filed under Chapter 09, DIDACHE Eucharist, Intertextuality: Pro-DIDACHE